The World Health Organization (WHO)
The World Health Organization (WHO) provides guidance, recommendations and key considerations to support differentiated service delivery across the HIV care continuum.
In July 2021, WHO published Consolidated guidelines on HIV prevention, testing, treatment, service delivery and monitoring as an update of the previous (2016) edition of the consolidated guidelines on HIV. The guidelines feature an expanded chapter on service delivery (Chapter 7, pages 339-470) that was published first in April 2021 (Updated recommendations on service delivery for the treatment and care of people living with HIV). This chapter emphasizes the need for differentiated service delivery for HIV treatment with a revised definition of established on treatment and outlines the four categories of DSD for HIV models. It also includes the recommendation for supporting HIV treatment initiation in the community. The revised consolidated guidelines also include the March 2021 update on treatment monitoring (Updated recommendations on HIV prevention, infant diagnosis, antiretroviral initiation and monitoring), with revised timing of routine viral load monitoring to ensure that it is more accessible, focused and triggers clinical action.
In June 2020, WHO published Maintaining essential health services: operational guidance for the COVID-19 context. On page 39-42, specific modifications for HIV service delivery in periods of COVID-19 related disruption are detailed, along with recommendations for transition towards restoration of activities as restrictions are relaxed.
In March 2020, WHO released the WHO operational handbook on tuberculosis. Module 1: Prevention. Tuberculosis preventive treatment, an implementation guide for the simultaneously released updated tuberculosis (TB) guidelines. The operational handbook recommends integrating intensified TB case finding and TB preventive therapy (TPT) within differentiated antiretroviral therapy delivery models. Client visits should be scheduled such that they can pick up antiretrovirals and TPT drugs at the same time.
In December 2019, WHO published a technical brief to define and clarify the key elements of adolescent-friendly health services, summarize existing guidance on adolescent-friendly health services and differentiated service delivery for adolescents living with HIV while showcasing best-practice case studies based on country experience in implementing these services.
In July 2017, the WHO prequalified the first HIV self-test and in 2018, the HIV self-testing strategic framework: a guide for planning, introducing and scaling up was released to support uptake of HIV self-testing including the six-step approach to differentiated HIV testing.
The 2017 Key considerations for differentiated antiretroviral therapy delivery for specific populations: children, adolescents, pregnant and breastfeeding women and key populations outlines the rationale for and features of differentiated ART delivery for clinically stable clients in these populations. The document complements A Decision Framework for differentiated antiretroviral therapy delivery for children, adolescents and pregnant and breastfeeding women (see, DSD decision frameworks).
Updated recommendations on service delivery for the treatment and care of people living with HIV (2021)
The guidelines provide updated service delivery recommendations to the 2016 consolidated guidelines
Updated recommendations on HIV prevention, infant diagnosis, antiretroviral initiation and monitoring (2021) (Download)
The guidelines provide updated recommendations to the 2016 consolidated guidelines
Consolidated guidelines on HIV prevention, testing, treatment, service delivery and monitoring (2021)
A full update to the previous 2016 consolidated guidelines
Maintaining essential health services: operational guidance for the COVID-19 context (2020)
This includes interim guidance on HIV programme modification during COVID-19
WHO operational handbook on tuberculosis: module 1: prevention: tuberculosis preventive treatment (2020)
This recommends integrating intensified TB case finding and TPT within differentiated ART models
Adolescent-friendly health services for adolescents living with HIV: from theory to practice (2019)
This brief defines the key elements of adolescent-friendly health services and summarizes existing guidance on service delivery for adolescents living with HIV
HIV self-testing strategic framework: a guide for planning, introducing and scaling up (2018)
This framework is intended to be a brief guide for countries and implementers that are planning, starting or scaling up HIVST implementation
Key considerations for differentiated antiretroviral therapy delivery for specific populations: Children, adolescents, pregnant and breastfeeding women and key populations (2017)
Outlines the rationale for differentiated ART delivery for clinically stable clients in these populations
Principales considérations concernant la délivrance différenciée de traitements antirétroviraux à des populations particulières : Enfants, adolescents, femmes enceintes ou allaitantes et populations clés (2017)
Présente les raisons qui soustendent la délivrance différenciée de TARV
The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM)
GFATM released a toolkit in November 2015 to provide operational guidance to managers of health facilities on implementing differentiated care approaches. GFATM also released their HIV Information Note in July 2019 to provide guidance to applicants developing Global Fund funding requests for the 2020-2022 funding cycle. Differentiated service delivery is highlighted as a key approach for HIV programmes to enhance implementation quality and efficiency.
A toolkit for health facilities: Differentiated Care for HIV and Tuberculosis (2015)
This toolkit highlights successful differentiated care approaches
HIV Information Note (2019)
The Information Note provides guidance to Global Fund applicants with differentiated service delivery highlighted as a key approach to be included in funding requests
The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)
The newest UNAIDS report, COVID-19 and HIV: 1 moment, 2 epidemics, 3 opportunities, looks at how lessons learnt in the fight against HIV can be leveraged to guide the COVID-19 response. DSD is highlighted as a strategy for enabling “precision public health”, which can better meet the needs of diverse individuals and communities.
The UNAIDS Global AIDS report 2020 highlights progress towards our 2020 targets and the risks that COVID-19 poses to HIV progress. It also highlights the role of differentiated service delivery – including extending ART refills, supporting community-based approaches and ensuring peer-support for people living with HIV.
The 2019 Global AIDS Update from UNAIDS, Communities at the centre. Defending rights, breaking barriers, reaching people with HIV services, recognizes that an increasing number of countries are using differentiated service delivery models to establish community-based systems for providing services across the cascade and making the 90-90-90 targets a reality.
In 2015, UNAIDS partnered with Medécins Sans Frontières (MSF) to release the first in a series of case studies highlighting the need to adapt ART delivery systems to meaningfully include community-based services.
COVID-19 and HIV: 1 moment, 2 epidemics, 3 opportunities
A new report on HIV and the COVID-19 response
Global AIDS report 2020
Communities at the centre. Defending rights, breaking barriers, reaching people with HIV services (2019)
A report outlining differentiated models of care as one of the key strategy to making the 90-90-90 targets a reality
UNAIDS and Médecins sans Frontières: Community-based antiretroviral therapy delivery (2015)
Experiences of Médecins sans Frontières
The United States President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR)
The PEPFAR 2021 Country and Regional Operational Plan Guidance for all PEPFAR countries highlights differentiated service delivery for HIV treatment as a minimum programme requirement for all countries supported by PEPFAR (pg. 48). The guidance further describes all four DSD for HIV treatment models including healthcare worker-managed groups, client-managed groups, facility-based groups and out-of-facility individual models. PEPFAR outlines the separation between clinical services and drug delivery. Throughout the guidance, PEPFAR emphasizes multi-month dispensing and decentralized drug delivery. All populations – including children, adolescents, pregnant and breastfeeding women, and members of key populations – are supported to receive DSD for HIV treatment.
USAID’s Supply Chain for Health team has put together an antiretroviral (ARV) planning tool to help countries consider their ARV procurement and supply chain planning for implementing i. “treat all” and ii. longer ART refills, also known as multi-month scripting (MMS).
PEPFAR 2022 Country Operational Plan (COP) Guidance for all PEPFAR Countries (2022)
Technical considerations for 2022 list adoption and implementation of differentiated service delivery models as minimum requirement for continued PEPFAR support
PEPFAR Multi-Month Prescribing and Treat All Calculator (2016)
An antiretroviral (ARV) planning tool to help countries consider their ARV procurement and supply chain planning
Guidelines for Multi-Month Prescribing and Treat All Calculator (2016)
Guidelines for multi-month prescribing/treat all ARV Planning Tool to help countries consider their ARV procurement and supply chain planning
Medécins Sans Frontières (MSF)
MSF released its first report, Closer to Home, in 2012 (updated version in 2013) on community-based models of ART delivery that it had been piloting for stable clients in sub-Saharan African countries in partnership with country health authorities. Lessons from implementation in Malawi are summarized in the 2015 report Lessons learnt from implementing CAGs in Thyolo, Malawi.
Guidance on how to implement models of differentiated ART delivery are also available from MSF in the Resource Library, including a toolkit for client-managed groups known as Community ART Groups in English and French, a report and toolkit for health care worker managed groups known as Adherence Clubs as well as for Family Clubs and for an out-of-facility model, or PODI, available in English and French.
Up the care cascade, a report and toolkit on ART/TB/PMTCT initiation patient education and counselling from the MSF Khayelitsha project is available for download below.
Lessons learnt from implementing CAGs in Thyolo, Malawi (2015)
A report on the Community ART Groups (CAGs) model which has been introduced as a pilot in Thyolo District since 2012
ART/TB/PMTCT initiation patient education and counselling model (2014)
Report and toolkit from MSF Khayelitsha
Reaching closer to home (2013)
Progress implementing community-based and other adherence strategies supporting people on HIV treatment
Closer to home (2012)
Delivering antiretroviral therapy in the community: Experience from four countries in Southern Africa