"Involving key population communities and organizations as partners and leaders in implementing health services is an evidence-informed approach to improving the quality and acceptability of services."

World Health Organization

What should differentiated prevention services include?

Targets have been set for prevention with a global goal of achieving less than 500,000 new infections by 2021. To achieve this target, linking clients to the five prevention pillars should be essential components of prevention services (see figure below). These pillars are: combination prevention for adolescent girls and young women; combination prevention for key populations; comprehensive condom programmes; voluntary medical male circumcision and sexual and reproductive health services for men and boys; and rapid introduction of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP).

Does differentiated service delivery include prevention for key populations?

There are several successful examples of DSD for key populations. The community response from key population organizations provides some of the earliest examples of DSD. They include prevention outreach services run by community-based organizations (CBOs), key population initiatives for testing and linking to health services, support groups for key populations living with HIV and drop-in centres (DICs) offering services, such as prevention information and commodities, STI treatment, OST and referral services.

Building on these successes, incorporating the lessons learned from pilot programmes into approaches supported by the ministry of health may support further scale up of quality DSD.


Using optional drop-in centres to provide comprehensive services, Kenya

In Kenya, a CSO uses drop-in-centres (DICs) as a safe space to provide services, including HIV testing, STI screening and treatment, prevention commodity distribution and cervical cancer screening. 

Providing services for female sex workers and men who have sex with men in a challenging political context, Tanzania

The Sauti project is a community-based HIV prevention and treatment initiative for men who have sex with men and female sex workers.

Peer navigator outreach with PrEP refills and HIV testing kits for female sex workers, Namibia

The Society for Family Health relies on trained peer navigators who meet with female sex workers at a convenient location with refills and testing kits.

Differentiated PrEP and sexual and reproductive health services for adolescent girls and young women, Kenya

Through the Jilinde project, peer educators mobilize adolescent girls and young women to access safe spaces, health facilities or drop-in centres providing PrEP and SRH services on a scheduled date. 

PrEP delivery through key population-owned private clinics and community-based organizations, Vietnam

The USAID/PATH Healthy Markets Project, with the Vietnam Administration of HIV/AIDS Control, has introduced and piloted PrEP for key populations, supporting key population-owned private clinics and community-based organizations to deliver PrEP and other health services. 

Community-led PrEP initiation and adherence monitoring for men who have sex with men, Cameroon

Humanity First Cameroon implements key population-led community testing, PrEP initiation and adherence monitoring for men who have sex with men.